منوعات عامة

بحث عن الهكر كامل باللغة الانجليزية

بحث عن الهكر كامل باللغة الانجليزية

Part 1: What is Hacking, a Hacker’s Code of Ethics, the Basic Security of Hacking

Part 2: Packet Switched Networks: Telenet – How It Works, How to Use it,
External Dialing, Network Servers, Private Pads
Part 3: Identifying a Computer, How to Hack It, Operating System
Default
Part 4: Conclusion-Final Thoughts, Books to Read, Whiteboards to Call,
Recognition

Part One: Basic Concepts
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
As long as there have been computers, there have been hackers. In the 50s
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), students spent a lot of time
and energy for the ingenious exploration of computers. The rules and the law were
ignored in their pursuit of the ‘hack’. Just as they were captivated with
your search for information, so do we. The thrill of the hack is not in
to violate the law, is in the pursuit and capture of knowledge.
To this end, let me contribute my suggestions of guidelines to follow for
make sure that he not only stays out of trouble, but also pursues his craft without
damage the computers you hack into or the companies that own them.

I. Do not intentionally damage *any* system.
II. Do not alter any system files other than those necessary to ensure their
escape from detection and its future access (Trojan Horses, Alteration
Logs and the like are necessary for their survival for as long as
possible.)
III. Do not leave your real name (or anyone else’s), real identifier or
phone number on any system you access illegally. They *can* and
it will track you from your handle!
IV. Be careful who you share information with. The feds are getting more complicated.
Usually, if you don’t know your voice phone number, name and
occupation or has not spoken to them voice in operations without information
conversations, be careful.

V. Don’t leave your real phone number to anyone you don’t know. This
include registration on the boards, no matter how k-rad they seem. If
don’t know the sysop, leave a note telling some people you trust
that will validate you.
SEE. Don’t hack into government computers. Yes, there are systems of government
that are safe to hack, but they are few and far between. And the
the government has infinitely more time and resources to locate him than
a company that has to make a profit and justify expenses.
VII. Don’t use codes unless there’s *NO* way around it (you don’t have a
local telenet or tymnet outdial and can not connect to anything 800…)
If you use the codes long enough, you’ll get caught. Period.
VIII. Don’t be afraid to be paranoid. Remember, you *are* breaking the law.
It doesn’t hurt to store everything encrypted on your hard drive, or
keep your notes buried in the backyard or in the trunk of your car.
You may feel a little funny, but you will feel a lot funnier when
when you meet Bruno, your transvestite cellmate who eliminated his family to
death.
IX. Keep an eye on what you post on the forums. Most of the world’s great hackers
country post *nothing* about the system they are currently working on
except in the broadest sense (I’m working on a UNIX, or a COSMOS, or
something generic. No “I’m hacking General Electric’s voicemail
System” or something inane and revealing like that.)
X. Don’t be afraid to ask questions. That’s what the most experienced hackers do
they’re for. However, don’t expect *everything* you ask for to be answered.
There are some things (LMOS, for example) that a beginner hacker
you shouldn’t mess with that. Either you get caught, or you ruin it for
others, or both.
XI. Finally, you have to hack. You can hang out on the boards all you want
you want, and you can read all the text files in the world, but until
in fact, start doing it, you’ll never know what it’s all about. Have
there’s no thrill quite like getting into your first system (well, okay,
I can think of a couple of bigger emotions, but you get the idea.)

One of the safest places to start your hacking career is on a computer
system belonging to a school. College computers have been notoriously lax
security, and they are more used to hackers, like all university computers.-
have one or two, so you are less likely to file charges if you must
be detected. But the odds are they will spot you and have the staff to
commitments to tracking you are scarce as long as you are not destructive.
If you are already a college student, this is ideal, as you can legally
explore your computer system to your heart’s desire, then go out and look
for similar systems you can confidently penetrate, as you are already
familiar with them.
So if you just want to get your feet wet, call your local university. Many of
they will provide accounts for local residents at a nominal fee (less than $20).
Finally, if you get caught, stay quiet until you get a lawyer. Not vol-
unlock any information, no matter what kind of “offers” they offer you.
Nothing is binding unless you make the deal through your lawyer, so you could
also shut up and wait.

Part Two: Networks
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The best place to start hacking (other than a university) is at one of the
larger networks like Telenet. Why? First of all, there is a huge variety of
computers to choose from, from small Micro-Vaxen to huge crayfish. Secondly, the
the networks are pretty well documented. It’s easier to find someone who can help
with a problem outside of Telenet which is to find help regarding your
local college computer or high school machine. Thirdly, networks are more secure.
Due to the huge number of calls that are made every day by the big
networks, it is not economically practical to keep track of where each call and
the connection is made of. It is also very easy to disguise your location using
the network, which makes your hobby much safer.
Telenet has more connected computers than any other system in the world
once you consider that from Telenet you have access to Tymnet, ItaPAC, JANET,
DATAPAC, SBDN, PandaNet, THEnet and a host of other networks, all
to which you can connect from your terminal.
The first step you need to take is to identify your local dial-up port.
This is done by dialing 1-800-424-9494 (1200 7E1) and connecting. It will
spit out some garbage and then you will get a message that says ‘TERMINAL=’.
This is your type of terminal. If you have vt100 emulation, write it now. O
just press return and it will default to dumb terminal mode.
Now you will receive a message that looks like an @. From here, type @c mail <cr>
and then it will ask for a username. Enter ‘phones’ for the username. When
it prompts for a password, enter ‘phones’ again. From this point on, it is menu
guide. Use it to locate your local phone line and call you back locally. If
you don’t have a local dial-up, then use whatever media you want to connect to
a long distance (more on this later.)
When you call your local phone line, it will go through the
TERMINAL= stuff, and once again you will be presented with an @. This indicator allows
you know that you are connected to a Telenet platform. PAD represents either of the two packages
Assembler/Disassembler (if talking to an engineer) or Publicly Accessible Device
(if you talk to the Telenet marketing people.) The first description is more
correct.
Telenet works by taking the data you enter on the keyboard to which you dialed,
grouping it into a 128-byte chunk (normally… this can be changed), and then
transmitting it at speeds ranging from 9600 to 19,200 baud to another PAD, which
then it takes the data and transmits it to any computer or system that is
connected to. Basically, the PAD allows two computers to have different baud
communication speeds or protocols to communicate with each other over a long
distance. Sometimes, you will notice a time delay in the response from remote machines.
This is called pad delay and is to be expected when sending data
through several different links.
What are you doing with this pad? You use it to connect to a remote computer
systems by typing ‘C’ to connect and then the Network User Address (NUA) of
the system you want to go to.
A NUA takes the form of 031103130002520
\___/\___/\___/
| | |
/ / /____ network address
| |_________ the area prefix
|______________ Agents of the DNIC

This is a summary of DNIC (taken from the Blade Runner archive at ItaPAC)
depending on the country and the name of the network.

بحث عن الهكر باللغة الانجليزية
Name of the DNIC Network Country Name of the DNIC Network Country
_______________________________________________________________________________
|
02041 Datanet 1 Netherlands / 03110 Telenet United States
02062 DCS Belgium / 03340 Telepac Mexico
02080 Transpac France / 03400 UDTS-Curacau Curacau
02284 Telepac Switzerland / 04251 Israel Intranet
02322 Datex-P Austria | 04401 DDX-P Japan
02329 Radaus Austria / 04408 Venus-P Japan
02342 PSS UK / 04501 Dacom-Net South Korea
02382 Datapak Denmark | 04542 Intelpak Singapore
02402 Datapak Sweden | 05052 Austpac Australia
02405 Telepak Sweden / 05053 Midas Australia
02442 Finpak Finland | 05252 Telepac Hong Kong
02624 Datex-P West Germany | 05301 Pacnet New Zealand
02704 Luxpac Luxembourg / 06550 Saponet South Africa
02724 Eirpak Ireland | 07240 Interdata Brazil
03020 Datapac Canada / 07241 Renpac Brazil
03028 Infogram Canada / 09000 Dialnet United States

There are two ways to find interesting directions for connecting. The first
and the easiest way is to get a copy of the LOD/H Telenet directory from the
Technical Magazine LOD/H #4 or magazine 2600. Jester Sluggo also pulled out a good
list of non-US addresses on Phrack Inc. Newsletter Number 21. These files
tell the NUA, whether it will accept collect calls or not, what kind of
computer system that it is (if known) and to whom it belongs (also if known.)
The second method of locating interesting addresses is to search for them
manually. In Telenet, it is not necessary to enter the DNIC 03110 to connect to a
Host of Telenet. So, if you saw that 031104120006140 had a VAX, you wanted
look, you could type @c 412 614 (the 0’s can be ignored most of the time.)
If this node allows to collect billed connections, it will say 412 614
CONNECTED and then you will possibly get an ID header or just a
Username: prompt. If you don’t allow collecting connections, it will give you a
message like 412 614 COLLECTION CONNECTION REJECTED with some error codes for
the right and will return you to the @ flag.
There are two main ways to get around the COLLECTION REJECTED message. The
the first thing is to use a Network User ID (NUI) to connect. A NUI is a username/password
combination that acts as a charge account on Telenet. To collect the node
412 614 with NUI junk4248, password 525332, I would type the following:
@c 412 614, junk4248,525332 < – – – – the 525332 will *not* echo the
screen. The problem with NUIs is that they are hard to get unless you are
a good social engineer with in-depth knowledge of Telenet (in which case
probably not reading this section), or have someone who can
contact them.
The second way to connect is to use a private keyboard, either via an X.25
PAD or via something like Netlink from a Prime computer (more on these
two down.)
The prefix in a NUA Telenet often (not always) refers to the area of the telephone
The code the computer is in (i.e. 713 xxx would be a computer in
Houston, Texas.) If there is a particular area that interests you, (for example,
New York City 914), you can start by typing @c 914 001 <cr>. If you connect,
take note and go to 914 002. You do this until you’ve found
some interesting systems to play with.
Not all systems are in one simple direction xxx yyyy. Some go out to four or
five digits (914 2354), and some have decimal or numeric extensions
(422 121A = 422 121.01). You have to play with them, and you never know what
you’re gonna find him. To fully scan a prefix it would take ten million
attempts by prefix. For example, if I want to scan 512 completely, I would have
to start with 512 00000.00 and go through 512 00000.99, then increment the
head for 1 and try 512 00001.00 to 512 00001.99. Lots of scanning.
However, there are a lot of cool computers to play with in a 3-digit scan,
so don’t go crazy with extensions.
Sometimes you will try to connect and it will just be sitting there after
a minute or two. In this case, you want to abort the connection attempt by
sending a hard break (this varies with the different term programs, in Procomm,
is ALT-B), and then when you get the @ message, type ‘D’ to disconnect.
If you are connecting to a computer and want to disconnect, you can type <cr> @
<cr> and you should say TELENET and then give it the @prompt. From there,
type D to disconnect or CONT to reconnect and continue the session
uninterrupted.

External Dialing, Network Servers and Pads
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
In addition to computers, a NUA can connect it to various other things.
One of the most useful is the outdial. An outdial is nothing more than a modem
you can access telenet, similar to the PC search concept, except that
these do not have passwords most of the time.
When you connect, you will receive a message like ‘Hayes 1200 baud outdial,
Detroit, MI’, or ‘VEN-TEL 212 Modem’, or possibly ‘Session 1234 established
on the modem 5588″. The best way to figure out the commands in these is
dude? o H o HELP-this will give you all the information you need to
use one.
Security tip here: when you are hacking *any* system via a phone call,
always use an external dialer or diverter, especially if it is a local phone number
for you. More people get caught hacking into local computers than you can
imagine, intra-LATA calls are the easiest things in the world to track inexp-
enzo.
Another good trick you can do with an external dial is to use the redial or macro
function that many of them have. The first thing you do when you connect is
invoke the ‘Redial the last number’ function. This will dial the last number used,
which will be the one the person using it before writing. Write down the
number, since no one would call a number without a computer on it. This
it’s a good way to find new systems to hack. Also, on a VENTEL modem, type ‘D’
for display and will display the five numbers stored as macros in the
the modem memory.
There are also different types of servers for remote Local Area networks
(LAN) that have many machines all over the office or nation connected to
them. I will discuss the identification of these later in the computer identification section.
And finally, you can connect to something that says ‘X.25 Communication
PAD’ and then some more stuff, followed by a new @prompt. This is a pad
just like the one you’re on, except all connection attempts are billed
to the PLATFORM, allowing you to connect to those nodes that were previously denied.
relationship.
This also has the added advantage of confusing where you are connecting from.
When a packet is transmitted from one platform to another, it contains a header that has
the location you are calling from. For example, when you first logged in
for Telenet, it could have said 212 44A CONNECTED if you called from the 212
area code. This means that you were calling the number 44A in the 212 area.
That 21244A will be sent in the header of all packets leaving the platform.
However, once you connect to a private platform, all the packets that come out
from*it* will have their address on them, not yours. This can be a valuable
buffer between you and the detection.

Phone Scan
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Finally, there is the traditional computer hunting method that was made
famous among the non-hacker crowd for that Technically Accurate movie
Wargames. You choose a three-digit phone code in your area and dial each
number from 0000 –> 9999 in that prefix, noting all the operators
you find it. There is software available to do this for almost all computers
in the world, so you don’t have to do it by hand.

Part Three: I’ve Found a Computer, Now What?
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The following section is universally applicable. No matter how you
i found this computer, it could be over a network or it could be from
operator scanning the phone code of your high school, has this message
this notice, what the hell is it?
I’m not going to try to tell you what to do once you’re inside me.
any of these operating systems. Each is worth several G-files in its
in its own right. I’m going to tell you how to identify and recognize certain
Operating systems, how to approach piracy on them and how to deal with something
that you’ve never seen before and have no idea what it is.

VMS – The VAX computer is manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC),
and runs the VMS (Virtual Memory System) operating system.
VMS is characterized by the indicator ‘Username:’. He won’t tell
whether you have entered a valid username or not, and you will be logged out
you after three incorrect login attempts. It also keeps track of all
failed login attempts and inform the account owner next time
records how many incorrect login attempts were made to the account.
It is one of the most secure operating systems out there since the
outside, but once you’re inside, there are a lot of things you can do
to bypass the security of the system. The VAX also has the best set of
help files in the world. Just write HELP and read to your heart
content.
Common accounts/Defaults: [username: password [[, password]] ] SYSTEM: OPERATOR or MANAGER or SYSTEM or SYSLIB
OPERATOR: OPERATOR
System: UETP
SYSMAINT: SYSMAINT or SERVICE or DIGITAL
FIELD: FIELD or SERVICE
GUEST: GUEST or without password
DEMO: DEMO or without password
Game name: DECNET

DEC-10 – An earlier line of DEC computer equipment, running the TOPS-10
operating system. These machines are recognized for their
‘.’ ask. The DEC-10/20 series are remarkably suitable for hackers,
allows you to enter several important commands without
log in to the system. The accounts have the format [xxx, yyyy] where
xxx and yyy are integers. You can get a list of the accounts and
the process names of all users on the system before logging in with
command .systat (System status). If you have an account
that says [234.1001] BOB JONES, it might be wise to try — or
Request a password for this account or both. To log in, type
.log in xxx, yyyy, and then type the password when prompted.
The system will allow you unlimited attempts on one account, and it does
not to keep records of incorrect login attempts. It will also inform you
if the UIC you are trying (UIC = User ID Code, 1,2 for
example) is bad.
Common Accounts/Defaults:
1.2: SYSLIB or OPERATOR or MANAGER
2.7: KEEP
5.30: GAMES

UNIX – There are dozens of different machines running UNIX.
While some might argue that it is not the best operating system in the world
world, it is undoubtedly the most widely used. A UNIX system
usually it has a message like ‘login:’ in lowercase. UNIX also
will give you unlimited shots when logging in (in most cases), and
a record of unsuccessful attempts is usually not kept.
Common accounts/defaults: (note that some systems are case sensitive
sensitive, so use lowercase as a rule of thumb. In addition, many times
the accounts will not have a password, you will simply log in directly!)
root: root
administrator: administrator
system administrator: system administrator or administrator
unix: unix
uucp: uucp
FNR: fnr
guest: guest
demonstration: demonstration
demon: demon
game name: sysbin

Prime- The Prime computer company mainframe running the Primos operating system
system. They are easy to spot as they greet you with
‘Primecon 18.23.05’ or similar, depending on the version of the
operating system you are running into. Usually there will not be a notice
otherwise, it will seem that he is sitting there. At this point,
type ‘ login <username>’. If it is a version older than 18.00.00 of Primos,
you can press a bunch of ^C for the password and you will get in.
Unfortunately, most people run versions older than 19 years. Cousins also
it comes with a nice set of help files. One of the most useful
the features of a Prime on Telenet is an installation called NETLINK. Time
you’re in, type NETLINK and follow the help files. This allows
it allows you to connect to NUA worldwide using the ‘nc’ command.
For example, to connect to NUA 026245890040004, you need to type
@nc: 26245890040004 in the netlink indicator.
Common Accounts/Defaults:
PRIME PRIME or COUSINS
PRIMES_CS PRIME or PRIMES
PRIMENET PRIMENET
System SYSTEM or PRIME
NETLINK NETLINK
TEST TEST
GUEST GUEST
GUEST1 GUEST

HP-x000 – This system is manufactured by Hewlett-Packard. It is characterized by the
‘:’ ask. The HP has one of the most complicated login sequences
around: Type ‘HELLO, LOGIN, USERNAME, ACCOUNT NAME, GROUP’.
Fortunately, some of these fields can be left blank in many cases.
Since each and every one of these fields can be with password, this is not
the easiest system to get into, except for the fact that there are
usually there are some accounts without a password. In general, if the
defaults don’t work, you will have to force it with brute force
list of common passwords (see below.) The HP-x000 runs the MPE operat-
in the system, the flag for it will be a ‘:’, just like the login
ask.
Common Accounts/Defaults:
MONS.TELESUP, PUB User: MGR Acct: HPONLY Grp: PUB
MONS.HPOFFICE, PUB without password
MANAGER.ITF3000, PUB without password
FIELD.SUPPORT, PUB user: FLD, others without password
EMAIL.TELESUP, PUB user: MAIL, others
no password
MONS.RJE without password
FIELD.HPPl89, HPPl87,HPPl89,HPPl96 without password
MONS.TELESUP,PUB, HPONLY, HP3 without password

IRIS-IRIS stands for Interactive Real-Time Information System. It is orig-
it initially ran on PDP-11, but now runs on many other minis. You can
locate an IRIS next to the ‘Welcome to “IRIS”R9′ banner. 1. 4 Timeshare’ ,
what about the account ID? ask. IRIS allows unlimited hacking attempts
and it doesn’t keep logs of failed attempts. I don’t know anyone.
passwords, so try the most common ones from the password database
below.
Common Accounts:
MANAGER
HEAD
SOFTWARE
DEMO
PDP8
PDP11
ACCOUNTING

VM/CMS – The VM/CMS operating system runs on International Business Machines
(IBM) mainframes. When you connect to one of these, you will get
message similar to ‘VM/370 ONLINE’, and then give it a ‘.’ ask,
just like TOPS-10. To log in, type ‘LOGON <username>’.
Common Accounts/defaults are:
AUTOLOGUE 1: AUTOLOGUE or AUTOLOGUE 1
CMS: Content management system
CMSBATCH: CMS or CMSBATCH
EREP: EREP
MAINTENANCE: Maintenance or maintenance
OPERATNS: OPERATNS or OPERATOR
OPERATOR: OPERATOR
CSR: CSR
SMART: INTELLIGENT
SNA: SNA
VM Test: VM TEST
Game Name: VMUTIL
VTAM: VTAM

NOS-NOS stands for Network Operating System and runs on the network
computer manufactured by Control Data Corporation. We are identified
quite easily, with a banner of ‘WELCOME TO THE SOFTWARE WE
SYSTEM. COPYRIGHT CONTROL DATA 1978,1987″. The first warning that
this will be the family:. Just press Return here. Then you will get
a USERNAME: prompt. Usernames are usually 7 alphanumeric
the characters are long and depend *extremely* on the site. Operator
accounts start with a digit, such as 7ETPDOC.
Common Accounts/Defaults:
— unknown SYSTEM
Unknown SYSTEMV

Decserver-This is not really a computer system, but it is a network server that
it has many different machines available. A Decserver will
say “Enter username >” the first time you log in. This can be anything,
it doesn’t matter, it’s just an identifier. Type ‘c’, since this is
the least conspicuous thing to enter. You will then be presented with
with a message ‘Local>’. From here, type ‘c <system name>’ to
connect to a system. For a list of system names, type
“sh services” or “sh nodes”. If you have any problems, online
help is available with the ‘help’ command. Be sure and look for
services called ‘MODEM’ or ‘DIAL’ or something similar, these are
often, direct dial modems and can be useful.

GS/1-Another type of network server. Unlike a Decserver, it cannot
predict which message a GS/1 gateway will give you. The
default is ‘GS/ 1>’, but this is modifiable by the
systems administrator. To test a GS/1, do a ‘sh d’. If that
prints a large list of default values (terminal speed, request,
parity, etc…), you are on a GS/1. You connect in the same way
as a Decserver, typing ‘c <systemname>’. To find out which systems
are available, make a ‘sh n’ or a ‘sh c’. Another trick is to make a
‘sh m’, which will sometimes show you a list of macros for the registry
in a system. If there is a macro called VAX, for example, type
‘do VAX’.

The above are the main types of systems in use today. Have
hundreds of minor variants on the above, but this should be
enough to get you started.

Systems That Do Not Respond
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Occasionally, you will connect to a system that will do nothing but sit
there. This is a frustrating feeling, but a methodical approach to the system
he will give an answer if he takes his time. The following list generally
make *something* happen.
1) Change the parity, data length and stop bits. A system that does not re-
the spond in 8N1 can react in 7E1 or 8E2 or 7S2. If you don’t have a term
program that will allow you to set parity in EVEN, ODD, SPACE, MARK and NONE,
with a data length of 7 or 8 and 1 or 2 stop bits, go out and buy one.
While having a good long-term program is not absolutely necessary, it sure is
helpful.
2) Change the baud rates. Again, if your long-term program allows you to choose,
transmission speeds such as 600 or 1100, occasionally it will be able to penetrate
some very interesting systems, like most systems that rely on a stranger
the baud rate seems to think that this is all the security they need…
3) Send a series of <cr>.
4) Send a hard break followed by a <cr>.
5) Write a series of.’s (periods). The Canadian Datapac network responds
to this.
6) If you are receiving junk, press an ‘i’. Tymnet responds to this, just like
a MultiLink II.
7) Start sending control characters, starting with ^A –> ^Z.
8) Change terminal emulations. What your vt100 emulation thinks is garbage
it may suddenly become crystal clear using ADM-5 emulation. This too
it relates to how good your term program is.
9) Type LOGIN, HELLO, LOGIN, ATTACH, CONNECT, START, RUN, START, LOGIN, GO,
JOIN, help and anything else

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